Machining & Grinding

Machining and grinding processes involve the removal of metal by the formation of a chip. A great amount of heat is released from the metal deformation that occurs. Heat is also generated by friction between the tool and the chip/workpiece. The fluid has the primary tasks of removing heat and reducing frictional forces. Thus, it must effectively wet out and penetrate the tool/workpiece interface and provide the proper balance of cooling and lubrication.

The fluid has many other functions, including the control of residues, corrosion, bacteria, fungus and many solid and liquid contaminants. It must do all this and be compatible with the operator using it. It should also be compatible with the metal, the operation, the tooling, water, filtration, and optimize their function if possible.

A metal's hardness, toughness, and adhesiveness play key roles in it's machinability. Other factors include the metal's chemistry, reactivity, and microstructure. These other factors also affect the tendency of the metal to discolor or degrade by a corrosion or other interactive process.

Typical operations include broaching, tapping, hobbing, drilling, reaming, milling, turning, grinding, and honing. The speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and have an impact on the requirements of the fluid. Also, the machine or transfer mechanism may depend on the fluid for lubrication. If not, the fluid should not interfere with, or wash off, any lubricants being used.

Materials commonly used for tooling include high speed steel, cobalt-based alloys, carbides, coated carbides, ceramics, and diamond. The tool material and geometry help determine the proper balance of cooling, lubrication and chemistry requirements for the fluid. Similar factors apply to the grinding wheel based on both the abrasive grit and the type of bond that holds it together.

Water normally contains dissolved ions like sodium, calcium, chloride, and sulfate. These can initially be at high levels or can buildup through evaporation of the water. They can affect fluid stability, corrosion, residues, rate of biological growth and the efficiency of the coolant in the machining process.

Buildup of suspended solids like metal fines, abrasive particles and dirt can have a negative impact on tool life and surface finish by abrasion or loading. The fluid must facilitate removal of solids by having the proper settling characteristics for the filter in use. Also, the fluid should not clog the filter media by forming residues or deposits.

Oil Removal
Major contaminants in coolant systems include hydraulic and way oils and residual fluids (lubricants and corrosion preventives) on incoming parts. These "tramp oils" can interfere with the cooling and lubricating functions of the fluid. They can be handled by using a fluid with proper rejection properties and/or removal equipment like skimmers, coalescers or centrifuges where necessary.

Process Fluids Incorporated offers a full line of technically advanced products. Please review the appropriate product data sheet for specific use recommendations.

Straight Oils
3000 Sulfur/chlorine free oil for medium to heavy duty applications.
3500 Low viscosity oil for gun drilling and grinding of steel alloys.
3950 Heavy duty oil for broaching and hobbing of steel alloys.
8000 Series Sulfur free honing / superfinishing fluids.
4000 Economical microemulsion for ferrous central systems.
4500 General purpose microemulsion for ferrous metals.
4700 Heavy duty microemulsion for ferrous and some cast aluminum jobs.
7900 Synthetic microemulsion for ferrous and some cast aluminum jobs.
5000 Economical general purpose soluble oil for ferrous and cast aluminum.
5500 Biostable, soluble oil for cast aluminum and steel.
5800 Biostable, chlorine free, heavy duty soluble for cast aluminum and steel.
5801 Biostable, heavy duty soluble for cast aluminum and steel.
7300 General purpose, oil rejecting, synthetic for ferrous metals.
7400 Mid-range, oil rejecting synthetic for ferrous metals.
7500 Heavy duty, oil rejecting synthetic for ferrous metals.
9000 Series Synthetic glass grinding fluids.

Process Fluids Incorporated also offers an extensive range of cleaners, corrosion preventives, drawing and forming compounds, and quenching fluids. Please consult your local representative for additional information.